Home > Releases > Recession Indicators Series > NBER based Recession Indicators for the United States from the Peak through the Period preceding the Trough
NBER based Recession Indicators for the United States from the Peak through the Period preceding the Trough (USRECDP)
7Day  Updated: Sep 22, 2017
Observation:
20170921: 0 (+ more)Updated: Sep 22, 2017
20170921:  0  
20170920:  0  
20170919:  0  
20170918:  0  
20170917:  0 
Units:
+1 or 0,Not Seasonally Adjusted
Frequency:
Daily,7Day
The recession shading data that we provide initially comes from the source as a list of dates that are either an economic peak or trough. We interpret dates into recession shading data using one of three arbitrary methods. All of our recession shading data is available using all three interpretations. The period between a peak and trough is always shaded as a recession. The peak and trough are collectively extrema. Depending on the application, the extrema, both individually and collectively, may be included in the recession period in whole or in part. In situations where a portion of a period is included in the recession, the whole period is deemed to be included in the recession period.
The first interpretation, known as the midpoint method, is to show a recession from the midpoint of the peak through the midpoint of the trough for monthly and quarterly data. For daily data, the recession begins on the 15th of the month of the peak and ends on the 15th of the month of the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. For monthly and quarterly data, the entire peak and trough periods are included in the recession shading. This method shows the maximum number of periods as a recession for monthly and quarterly data. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis uses this method in its own publications. A version of this time series represented using the midpoint method can be found at:
https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USRECDM
The second interpretation, known as the trough method, is to show a recession from the period following the peak through the trough (i.e. the peak is not included in the recession shading, but the trough is). For daily data, the recession begins on the first day of the first month following the peak and ends on the last day of the month of the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. The trough method is used when displaying data on FRED graphs. A version of this time series represented using the trough method can be found at:
https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USRECD
The third interpretation, known as the peak method, is to show a recession from the period of the peak to the trough (i.e. the peak is included in the recession shading, but the trough is not). For daily data, the recession begins on the first day of the month of the peak and ends on the last day of the month preceding the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. The peak method is used for this series.
NBER based Recession Indicators for the United States from the Peak through the Period preceding the Trough
Customize data:
Write a custom formula to transform one or more series or combine two or more series.
You can begin by adding a series to combine with your existing series.
Now create a custom formula to combine or transform the series.
Need help? []
For example, invert an exchange rate by using formula 1/a, where “a” refers to the first FRED data series added to this line. Or calculate the spread between 2 interest rates, a and b, by using the formula a  b.
Use the assigned data series variables (a, b, c, etc.) together with operators (+, , *, /, ^, etc.), parentheses {(,)}, and constants (1, 1.5, 2, etc.) to create your own formula (e.g., 1/a, ab, (a+b)/2, (a/(a+b+c))*100). As noted above, you may add other data series to this line before entering a formula.
Finally, you can change the units of your new series.
The recession shading data that we provide initially comes from the source as a list of dates that are either an economic peak or trough. We interpret dates into recession shading data using one of three arbitrary methods. All of our recession shading data is available using all three interpretations. The period between a peak and trough is always shaded as a recession. The peak and trough are collectively extrema. Depending on the application, the extrema, both individually and collectively, may be included in the recession period in whole or in part. In situations where a portion of a period is included in the recession, the whole period is deemed to be included in the recession period.
The first interpretation, known as the midpoint method, is to show a recession from the midpoint of the peak through the midpoint of the trough for monthly and quarterly data. For daily data, the recession begins on the 15th of the month of the peak and ends on the 15th of the month of the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. For monthly and quarterly data, the entire peak and trough periods are included in the recession shading. This method shows the maximum number of periods as a recession for monthly and quarterly data. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis uses this method in its own publications. A version of this time series represented using the midpoint method can be found at:
https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USRECDM
The second interpretation, known as the trough method, is to show a recession from the period following the peak through the trough (i.e. the peak is not included in the recession shading, but the trough is). For daily data, the recession begins on the first day of the first month following the peak and ends on the last day of the month of the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. The trough method is used when displaying data on FRED graphs. A version of this time series represented using the trough method can be found at:
https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USRECD
The third interpretation, known as the peak method, is to show a recession from the period of the peak to the trough (i.e. the peak is included in the recession shading, but the trough is not). For daily data, the recession begins on the first day of the month of the peak and ends on the last day of the month preceding the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. The peak method is used for this series.
NBER based Recession Indicators for the United States from the Peak through the Period preceding the Trough
Customize data:
Write a custom formula to transform one or more series or combine two or more series.
You can begin by adding a series to combine with your existing series.
Now create a custom formula to combine or transform the series.
Need help? []
For example, invert an exchange rate by using formula 1/a, where “a” refers to the first FRED data series added to this line. Or calculate the spread between 2 interest rates, a and b, by using the formula a  b.
Use the assigned data series variables (a, b, c, etc.) together with operators (+, , *, /, ^, etc.), parentheses {(,)}, and constants (1, 1.5, 2, etc.) to create your own formula (e.g., 1/a, ab, (a+b)/2, (a/(a+b+c))*100). As noted above, you may add other data series to this line before entering a formula.
Finally, you can change the units of your new series.
Add data series to graph:
Data in this graph are copyrighted. Please review the copyright information in the series notes before sharing.
Title  Release Dates  


NBER based Recession Indicators for the United States from the Peak through the Period preceding the Trough  20141006  20170922 
Source  


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  20141006  20170922 
Release  


Recession Indicators Series  20141006  20170922 
Units  


+1 or 0  20141006  20170922 
Frequency  


Daily, 7Day  20141006  20170922 
Seasonal Adjustment  


Not Seasonally Adjusted  20141006  20170922 
Notes  


This time series is an interpretation of US Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions data provided by The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) at http://www.nber.org/cycles/cyclesmain.html. Our time series is composed of dummy variables that represent periods of expansion and recession. The NBER identifies months and quarters of turning points without designating a date within the period that turning points occurred. The dummy variable adopts an arbitrary convention that the turning point occurred at a specific date within the period. The arbitrary convention does not reflect any judgment on this issue by the NBER's Business Cycle Dating Committee. A value of 1 is a recessionary period, while a value of 0 is an expansionary period. For this time series, the recession begins the first day of the period of the peak and ends on the last day of the period before the trough. For more options on recession shading, see the notes and links below. The recession shading data that we provide initially comes from the source as a list of dates that are either an economic peak or trough. We interpret dates into recession shading data using one of three arbitrary methods. All of our recession shading data is available using all three interpretations. The period between a peak and trough is always shaded as a recession. The peak and trough are collectively extrema. Depending on the application, the extrema, both individually and collectively, may be included in the recession period in whole or in part. In situations where a portion of a period is included in the recession, the whole period is deemed to be included in the recession period. The first interpretation, known as the midpoint method, is to show a recession from the midpoint of the peak through the midpoint of the trough for monthly and quarterly data. For daily data, the recession begins on the 15th of the month of the peak and ends on the 15th of the month of the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. For monthly and quarterly data, the entire peak and trough periods are included in the recession shading. This method shows the maximum number of periods as a recession for monthly and quarterly data. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis uses this method in its own publications. A version of this time series represented using the midpoint method can be found at: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USRECDM The second interpretation, known as the trough method, is to show a recession from the period following the peak through the trough (i.e. the peak is not included in the recession shading, but the trough is). For daily data, the recession begins on the first day of the first month following the peak and ends on the last day of the month of the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. The trough method is used when displaying data on FRED graphs. A version of this time series represented using the trough method can be found at: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USRECD The third interpretation, known as the peak method, is to show a recession from the period of the peak to the trough (i.e. the peak is included in the recession shading, but the trough is not). For daily data, the recession begins on the first day of the month of the peak and ends on the last day of the month preceding the trough. Daily data is a disaggregation of monthly data. The peak method is used for this series. 
20141006  20170922 
Related Resources
Other Formats
Related Categories
Sources
Releases
Tags
Confirm Delete
Are you sure you want to remove this series from the graph? This can not be undone.